last update: 2018 04 07


What is. What exists.


A thing limits (forces, changes) one or more things.

A thing is recognized by what it limits or by being limited by other things.


Some thing limits some thing.
No thing limits no thing.
Creation of some thing can happen if not limited by some thing.
Creation is immediate when no-thing limits no-thing.


Space, by this definition, is a requirement for or the result of multiple things that exist in parallel (= at the same time).
As multiple things exist so does space exist as consequence or requirement.


Distance as an order of things. One thing after another.
I do not know if empty space actually exists because emptyness means nothing and therefore no separation or space or empty space.
That things are in order (e.g. a wall that prevents sun light to reach the eye) in some space line or dimension is a quite curious fact.
Maybe some kind of wire (row or line or wave of things) is required for light (or the light effect) to travel from the sun to the eye.


Time is a measure of and measured by relative movement or change.

The time of movement of A from B to C is measured with a clock where the pointer moves from D to E.

Speed of light

It seems that in physical space, nothing can move faster than light.

Hardware and software

Software means the mutable (or variable or programmable) electric state of devices (= hardware).
The computer processor conducts electricity from one place to another.
When you press a certain button on a keyboard then the keyboard sends a certain electric signal.
When a certain electric signal is sent to the display then a certain image is displayed by the display.

Physical space

I mean by physical space the space of physical things.
Physicists, chemists, biologists and most other scientists know and research the physical space.

Mental space

I mean by mental spaces the spaces of mental things.
E.g. touch, vision, hearing, smell, fear, joy, pain, ...

The mental spaces are different from the physical space.

Other space

I mean by other spaces the unknown spaces.

Awareness aka consciousness

Awareness of something means existence of it.
Awareness by limitation.
Things limit things so that things are what/how they are.

Physical awareness or
physical consciousness

It is provided by a brain or a computer.


Reception, storage, modification, transfer of information or knowledge.


Fantasy as one process that creates knowledge.


Logic as the process that discovers what limits what.

Logic leads to the discovery and recognition of things.

The goal of a general AI: Doing Logic. Work to discover new limitations. Work to understand.

The speed of light is related to logic of the physical space.


Understanding of a thing T means:


Self awareness or self consciousness is physical knowledge.

AFAIK respected experts, scientists and psychologists have no clear and useful definition of awareness and self-awareness in 2017 CE.
IMO there is no good reason to distinguish between awareness and awareness of awareness.
As my expression suggests, (physical) awareness is (physical) awareness or (physical) knowledge.
Why should awareness of awareness be a technical problem ?

IMO self-driving cars and some robots are or will soon be self-aware according to these abilities:

Mental awareness or
mental consciousness

Exists as mental things in mental space(s).
E.g. touch, vision, hearing, smell, fear, joy, pain,...

Connection between physical space and mental space

I can be not aware of something:
What triggers mental awareness ?
Why is it local to my body ?
Not one neuron creates mental awareness.
Not any group of neurons creates mental awareness.
Some physical parts of the brain (e.g. the limbic system) seem to have a special relation with the mental space.
All or most mental awareness seems to be triggered by the physical brain.

I know of having had a mental experience: Thus mental things affect physical things (e.g. knowledge stored by the physical brain).
The mental space affects the physical space.

Research of awareness and emotions

The research of the mental space requires:

Perception, recall, fantasy

Perception as the experience that is result of reactions that started with the activity of sensors like e.g. skin, ear, eye, ...

Perceptions, recalls and fantasies are similar experiences.
I guess the activity of neurons for perception, recall and fantasy is similar.

Some activity of neurons or chemicals leads somehow to things or changes in the mental space.

Maybe a memory is stored as the repetition of the activity of certain neurons.

Besides, a visual display can help thinking by avoiding the need to recall what can be seen.

What I am

I am things.
Physical things.
Mental things.
Maybe other things.

Free will

Free will is best defined as original independent unconstraint rational intention.
There is no free will.
There is only the brain that decides.
There is only limitation by what exists.

Drive, motivation

Drive and motivation by limitation (to behave differently).

Machine abilities are executed as program.

For animal persons/personalities (including human persons) there are different kinds of spaces: